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== Running Spark Applications on Windows

Running Spark applications on Windows in general is no different than running it on other operating systems like Linux or macOS.

NOTE: A Spark application could be spark-shell.md[spark-shell] or your own custom Spark application.

What makes the huge difference between the operating systems is Hadoop that is used internally for file system access in Spark.

You may run into few minor issues when you are on Windows due to the way Hadoop works with Windows' POSIX-incompatible NTFS filesystem.

NOTE: You do not have to install Apache Hadoop to work with Spark or run Spark applications.

TIP: Read the Apache Hadoop project's https://wiki.apache.org/hadoop/WindowsProblems[Problems running Hadoop on Windows].

Among the issues is the infamous java.io.IOException when running Spark Shell (below a stacktrace from Spark 2.0.2 on Windows 10 so the line numbers may be different in your case).

16/12/26 21:34:11 ERROR Shell: Failed to locate the winutils binary in the hadoop binary path
java.io.IOException: Could not locate executable null\bin\winutils.exe in the Hadoop binaries.
  at org.apache.hadoop.util.Shell.getQualifiedBinPath(Shell.java:379)
  at org.apache.hadoop.util.Shell.getWinUtilsPath(Shell.java:394)
  at org.apache.hadoop.util.Shell.<clinit>(Shell.java:387)
  at org.apache.hadoop.hive.conf.HiveConf$ConfVars.findHadoopBinary(HiveConf.java:2327)
  at org.apache.hadoop.hive.conf.HiveConf$ConfVars.<clinit>(HiveConf.java:365)
  at org.apache.hadoop.hive.conf.HiveConf.<clinit>(HiveConf.java:105)
  at java.lang.Class.forName0(Native Method)
  at java.lang.Class.forName(Class.java:348)
  at org.apache.spark.util.Utils$.classForName(Utils.scala:228)
  at org.apache.spark.sql.SparkSession$.hiveClassesArePresent(SparkSession.scala:963)
  at org.apache.spark.repl.Main$.createSparkSession(Main.scala:91)

[NOTE]

You need to have Administrator rights on your laptop. All the following commands must be executed in a command-line window (cmd) ran as Administrator, i.e. using Run as administrator option while executing cmd.

Read the official document in Microsoft TechNet -- ++https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc947813(v=ws.10).aspx++[Start a Command Prompt as an Administrator].

Download winutils.exe binary from https://github.com/steveloughran/winutils repository.

NOTE: You should select the version of Hadoop the Spark distribution was compiled with, e.g. use hadoop-2.7.1 for Spark 2 (https://github.com/steveloughran/winutils/blob/master/hadoop-2.7.1/bin/winutils.exe[here is the direct link to winutils.exe binary]).

Save winutils.exe binary to a directory of your choice, e.g. c:\hadoop\bin.

Set HADOOP_HOME to reflect the directory with winutils.exe (without bin).

set HADOOP_HOME=c:\hadoop

Set PATH environment variable to include %HADOOP_HOME%\bin as follows:

set PATH=%HADOOP_HOME%\bin;%PATH%

TIP: Define HADOOP_HOME and PATH environment variables in Control Panel so any Windows program would use them.

Create C:\tmp\hive directory.

[NOTE]

c:\tmp\hive directory is the default value of https://cwiki.apache.org/confluence/display/Hive/Configuration+Properties#ConfigurationProperties-hive.exec.scratchdir[hive.exec.scratchdir configuration property] in Hive 0.14.0 and later and Spark uses a custom build of Hive 1.2.1.

You can change hive.exec.scratchdir configuration property to another directory as described in <hive.exec.scratchdir Configuration Property>> in this document.

Execute the following command in cmd that you started using the option Run as administrator.

winutils.exe chmod -R 777 C:\tmp\hive

Check the permissions (that is one of the commands that are executed under the covers):

winutils.exe ls -F C:\tmp\hive

Open spark-shell and observe the output (perhaps with few WARN messages that you can simply disregard).

As a verification step, execute the following line to display the content of a DataFrame:

[source, scala]

scala> spark.range(1).withColumn("status", lit("All seems fine. Congratulations!")).show(false) +---+--------------------------------+ |id |status | +---+--------------------------------+ |0 |All seems fine. Congratulations!| +---+--------------------------------+


[NOTE]

Disregard WARN messages when you start spark-shell. They are harmless.

16/12/26 22:05:41 WARN General: Plugin (Bundle) "org.datanucleus" is already registered. Ensure you dont have multiple JAR versions of
the same plugin in the classpath. The URL "file:/C:/spark-2.0.2-bin-hadoop2.7/jars/datanucleus-core-3.2.10.jar" is already registered,
and you are trying to register an identical plugin located at URL "file:/C:/spark-2.0.2-bin-hadoop2.7/bin/../jars/datanucleus-core-
3.2.10.jar."
16/12/26 22:05:41 WARN General: Plugin (Bundle) "org.datanucleus.api.jdo" is already registered. Ensure you dont have multiple JAR
versions of the same plugin in the classpath. The URL "file:/C:/spark-2.0.2-bin-hadoop2.7/jars/datanucleus-api-jdo-3.2.6.jar" is already
registered, and you are trying to register an identical plugin located at URL "file:/C:/spark-2.0.2-bin-
hadoop2.7/bin/../jars/datanucleus-api-jdo-3.2.6.jar."
16/12/26 22:05:41 WARN General: Plugin (Bundle) "org.datanucleus.store.rdbms" is already registered. Ensure you dont have multiple JAR
versions of the same plugin in the classpath. The URL "file:/C:/spark-2.0.2-bin-hadoop2.7/bin/../jars/datanucleus-rdbms-3.2.9.jar" is
already registered, and you are trying to register an identical plugin located at URL "file:/C:/spark-2.0.2-bin-
hadoop2.7/jars/datanucleus-rdbms-3.2.9.jar."

If you see the above output, you're done. You should now be able to run Spark applications on your Windows. Congrats!

=== [[changing-hive.exec.scratchdir]] Changing hive.exec.scratchdir Configuration Property

Create a hive-site.xml file with the following content:

<configuration>
  <property>
    <name>hive.exec.scratchdir</name>
    <value>/tmp/mydir</value>
    <description>Scratch space for Hive jobs</description>
  </property>
</configuration>

Start a Spark application, e.g. spark-shell, with HADOOP_CONF_DIR environment variable set to the directory with hive-site.xml.

HADOOP_CONF_DIR=conf ./bin/spark-shell

Last update: 2020-10-06